Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016

Posted by U.S. Department of Education on September 5, 2016

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups examines the educational progress and challenges students face in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that over time, students in the racial/ethnic groups of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Two or more races have completed high school and continued their education in college in increasing numbers. Despite these gains, the rate of progress has varied among these racial/ethnic groups and differences by race/ethnicity persist in terms of increases in attainment and progress on key indicators of educational performance.

• The percentage of school-age children ages 5–17 in the United States who were White decreased from
62 percent in 2000 to 53 percent in 2013, and the percentage of children who were Black decreased
from 15 to 14 percent during this time. In contrast, the percentage of school-age children who were from
other racial/ethnic groups increased during this period: those who were Hispanic increased from
16 to 24 percent; those who were Asian, from 3 to 5 percent; and those who were of Two or more races,
from 2 to 4 percent. (Indicator 1).
• In 2013, the percentage of all U.S. children under 18 who were born within the United States was
97 percent. The percentages of Asian, Pacific Islander, and Hispanic children who were born within the
United States (79, 93, and 94 percent, respectively) were below the 97 percent average for all children.
In contrast, the percentages of Black children (97.5 percent), White children and children of Two or
more races (99 percent each), and American Indian/Alaska Native children (rounds to 100 percent) who
were born within the United States were above the average for all children. (Indicator 2).
• Greater percentages of Asian and Hispanic children under 18 were born within the United States in 2013 than in 2003 (79 vs. 77 percent for Asian children and 94 vs. 89 percent for Hispanic children).
(Indicator 2).
• In 2013, a higher percentage of Asian children (83 percent) lived with married parents than did
White children (73 percent), Pacific Islander children (60 percent), Hispanic children and children of Two of more races (57 percent each), American Indian/Alaska Native children (44 percent), and Black
children (32 percent). (Indicator 3).
• The percentage of children under age 18 living in poverty, based on the official poverty measure, varied
across racial/ethnic groups. In 2013, the percentage was highest for Black children (39 percent), followed by Hispanic children (30 percent), and White and Asian children (10 percent for each). (Indicator 4).

Preprimary, Elementary, and Secondary Education Participation:
• In 2012, about 28 percent of children under 6 years old who were not enrolled in kindergarten regularly received center-based care. The percentage of children who regularly received center-based care was higher for Black (34 percent), Asian (33 percent), and White children (29 percent) than for Hispanic children (22 percent). (Indicator 5).
• In 2012, a higher percentage of young children from nonpoor families than from poor families regularly received center-based care (34 vs. 20 percent). This same pattern was observed for White, Black, and Hispanic young children. (Indicator 5).
• Between fall 2002 and fall 2012, the percentage of students enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools who were White decreased from 59 to 51 percent, and the percentage who were Black
decreased from 17 to 16 percent. During the same period, however, the percentage who were Hispanic
increased from 18 to 24 percent, and the percentage who were Asian/Pacific Islander increased from 4 to
5 percent. (Indicator 6).
• Black students accounted for a higher percentage of enrollment in public charter schools (28 percent)
than in traditional public schools (15 percent) in 2012. Hispanic students also accounted for a higher
percentage of enrollment in public charter schools (29 percent) than in traditional public schools
(24 percent). The percentage of public charter school enrollees who were White (35 percent) was lower than the percentage of traditional public school enrollees who were White (52 percent). Asian/Pacific Islander students also made up a lower percentage of charter school enrollees (4 percent) than of traditional public school enrollees (5 percent). (Indicator 6).
• In 2013, about 4.6 million public school students participated in English language learner (ELL)
programs. Hispanic students made up the majority of this group (78 percent), with around 3.6 million
participating in ELL programs. (Indicator 7).
• The ELL program participation rate in 2013 for some racial/ethnic groups was lower than the total
participation rate (9 percent). About 7 percent of American Indian/Alaska Native students, 2 percent of
Black students, 2 percent of students of Two or more races, and 1 percent of White students participated
in ELL programs. In contrast, the percentages of Hispanic (29 percent), Asian (20 percent), and Pacific
Islander (14 percent) students participating in ELL programs were higher than the total percentage in
2013. (Indicator 7).
• In 2012–13, the percentage of students served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA) was highest for American Indian/Alaska Native students (16 percent), followed by Black
students (15 percent), White students (13 percent), students of Two or more races (13 percent), Hispanic
students (12 percent), Pacific Islander students (11 percent), and Asian students (6 percent). (Indicator 8).

• At grade 4, the White-Black gap in reading narrowed from 32 points in 1992 to 26 points in 2013; the
White-Hispanic gap in 2013 (25 points) was not measurably different from the gap in 1992. At grade 8, the White-Hispanic gap narrowed from 26 points in 1992 to 21 points in 2013; the WhiteBlack gap in 2013 (26 points) was not measurably different from the gap in 1992. (Indicator 9).
• At grade 12, the White-Black achievement gap in reading was larger in 2013 (30 points) than in 1992
(24 points), while the White-Hispanic reading achievement gap in 2013 (22 points) was not measurably different from the gap in 1992. (Indicator 9).
• At grade 4, the White-Black achievement gap in mathematics narrowed from 32 points in 1990 to
26 points in 2013; there was no measurable difference between the 1990 and 2013 White-Hispanic gaps.
(Indicator 10).
• At grade 8, there was no measurable difference in the White-Black or White-Hispanic mathematics
achievement gaps between 1990 and 2013. (Indicator 10).
• The mathematics scores for White 12th-graders were higher than the scores for their Black and
Hispanic peers in 2005, 2009, and 2013. There were no measurable changes in White-Black and White-Hispanic mathematics achievement gaps at grade 12 between any of these years. (Indicator 10).
• In 2013, the percentage of 8th-graders who reported that they had zero absences from school in the
month preceding data collection was higher for Asian students (65 percent) than for students who were
Black (46 percent), Hispanic (44 percent), White (43 percent), of Two or more races (42 percent),
American Indian/Alaska Native (36 percent), or Pacific Islander (35 percent). (Indicator 11).
• A higher percentage of Asian students (45 percent) than of students of any other racial/ethnic group
earned their highest math course credit in calculus. The percentage earning their highest math course
credit in calculus was also higher for White students (18 percent) than for students of Two or more races
(11 percent), Hispanic students (10 percent), and Black students (6 percent). (Indicator 12).
• The percentage of students who were 9th-graders in fall 2009 earning any Advanced Placement/
International Baccalaureate (AP/IB) credits by 2013 was higher for Asian students (72 percent) than
for White students (40 percent). The percentages for Asian and White students were higher than the
percentages for students of any other racial/ethnic group. (Indicator 13).
• The average number of AP/IB course credits earned in high school by Asian students (4.5 credits) was higher than the average earned by students of any other racial/ethnic group. Additionally, White students earned a higher number of total AP/IB credits in high school (3.1 credits) than Black students (2.7 credits). (Indicator 13).

Student Behaviors and Persistence:
• The percentage of students retained in grade between 1994 and 2014 decreased for those who were Black (from 4.5 to 3.0 percent), as well as for those who were White (from 2.5 to 2.0 percent). There was no measurable difference between the 1994 and 2014 percentages of Hispanic students retained in grade. (Indicator 14).
• In 2012, the percentage of Black male students who had ever been suspended from school (48.3 percent) was more than twice the percentage of Hispanic (22.6 percent), White (21.4 percent), and Asian/Pacific Islander (11.2 percent) male students who had ever been suspended. Similarly, the percentage of Black female students who had ever been suspended (29.0 percent) was more than twice the percentage of Hispanic (11.8 percent), White (9.4 percent), and Asian/Pacific Islander (7.9 percent) female students who had ever been suspended. (Indicator 14).
• In 2013, the percentage of students in grades 9–12 who reported being threatened or injured with a
weapon on school property during the previous 12 months was higher for American Indian/Alaska
Native (18 percent) and Hispanic students (8 percent) than for White (6 percent) and Asian students
(5 percent). The percentage was also higher for Black students (8 percent) than for White students.
(Indicator 15).
• From 1990 to 2013, the Hispanic status dropout rate among 16- to 24-year-olds decreased from 32 to
12 percent, while the Black rate decreased from 13 to 7 percent and the White rate decreased from
9 to 5 percent. Nevertheless, the Hispanic status dropout rate in 2013 remained higher than the Black
and White status dropout rates. (Indicator 16).
• Among Hispanic subgroups, the high school status dropout rate for 16- to 24-year-olds in 2013 ranged from 2 percent for Peruvians to 27 percent for Guatemalans. Among Asian subgroups, status dropout rates ranged from 1 percent for Koreans to 37 percent for Bhutanese. (Indicator 16).
• From 1990 to 2013, the high school status completion rate for Hispanic 18- to 24-year-olds increased from 59 percent to 85 percent, while the Black and White status completion rates increased from 83 percent to 92 percent and from 90 percent to 94 percent, respectively. Although the White-Hispanic and
White-Black gaps in status completion rates for 18- to 24-year-olds narrowed between 1990 and 2013, the 2013 status completion rates for Hispanic and Black individuals remained lower than the White rate.
(Indicator 17).

Postsecondary Education:
• The 2013 total college enrollment rate for White 18- to 24-year-olds (42 percent) was higher than the
rates for their Black and Hispanic peers (34 percent each). The White-Hispanic gap in the total college
enrollment rate narrowed between 2003 and 2013 (from 18 to 8 percentage points); however, the White-Black gap in the total college enrollment rate did not change measurably during this period. (Indicator 18).
• Among Hispanic subgroups, the total college enrollment rate in 2013 ranged from 25 percent for Guatemalan young adults to 62 percent for Venezuelan young adults. Among Asian subgroups, the total college enrollment rate ranged from 20 percent for Bhutanese young adults to 84 percent for Other Southeast Asian (i.e., Indonesian and Malaysian) young adults. (Indicator 18).
• Between 1990 and 2013, total fall undergraduate enrollment of some racial/ethnic groups grew faster
than that of other groups, and the racial/ethnic distribution of students therefore changed. The largest increases in undergraduate enrollment were observed for Hispanic and Black students; specifically,
Hispanic student enrollment as a percentage of total enrollment increased 11 percentage points (from
6 to 17 percent) and Black student enrollment as a percentage of total enrollment increased 5 percentage
points (from 10 to 15 percent) during this time period. (Indicator 19).
• Among undergraduate students in 2013, about 83 percent of Hispanic students, 81 percent of Asian
students, and 79 percent of American Indian/Alaska Native students attended public institutions, higher
than the percentages of students of Two or more races (77 percent), White students (76 percent), Black
students (70 percent), and Pacific Islander students (68 percent) who attended them. (Indicator 19).
• Among full-time, full-year undergraduate students, 85 percent of Black and American Indian/Alaska
Native students and 80 percent of Hispanic students received any type of grants in 2011–12. These
percentages were higher than the percentages of students of Two or more races (73 percent) and of
White (69 percent), Pacific Islander (67 percent), and Asian (63 percent) students who received grants.
(Indicator 20).
• In 2011–12, about 72 percent of Black students received any type of loans, compared with 62 percent
of American Indian/Alaska Native students, 59 percent of students of Two or more races, 56 percent of White, 51 percent of Hispanic students, 51 percent of Pacific Islander students, and 38 percent of Asian students. (Indicator 20).
• The 2013 graduation rate was 59 percent for first-time, full-time undergraduate students who began
their pursuit of a bachelor’s degree at a 4-year degree-granting institution in fall 2007. The 6-year graduation rate was highest for Asian students and students of Two or more races (71 percent and
68 percent, respectively), and lowest for Black and American Indian/Alaska Native students (41 percent
each). (Indicator 21).
• The 3-year graduation rate for first-time, full-time students at public 2-year institutions in 2013 was
highest for Asian students (28 percent) and lowest for Black students (11 percent). Graduation rates for first-time, full-time students at public 2-year institutions in the remaining racial/ethnic groups ranged from 15 to 22 percent. (Indicator 21).
• The number of bachelor’s degrees conferred to Hispanic students more than doubled between 2002–03 and 2012–13, and the number conferred to Black students increased by 54 percent. During the same period, the number of degrees conferred to Asian/Pacific Islander, White, and American Indian/Alaska Native students increased by smaller percentages (48, 23, and 16 percent, respectively). (Indicator 22).
• In 2012–13, a higher percentage of bachelor’s degrees were conferred in the field of business than in any other field across all racial/ethnic groups, ranging from 16 percent for students of Two or more races to 23 percent for Pacific Islander students. (Indicator 23).
• In 2012–13, the percentage of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) bachelor’s
degrees conferred to Asian students (30 percent) was almost double the average conferred to all students (16 percent). In contrast, the percentages of bachelor’s degrees in STEM fields conferred to Black (11 percent), Hispanic (14 percent), American Indian/Alaska Native (14 percent), and Pacific Islander
students (15 percent) were lower than the average conferred to all students. (Indicator 24).

Outcomes of Education:
• In 2013, the percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds who had not completed high school was higher for
American Indian/Alaska Native young adults (25 percent) than for any other racial/ethnic group.
Among adults age 25 and older, the percentage who had not completed high school in 2013 was higher for Hispanic adults (35 percent) than for any other racial/ethnic group. (Indicator 25).
• The percentage of adults age 25 and older who had earned at least a bachelor’s degree in 2013 was highest for Asian adults (52 percent). Of the other racial/ethnic groups, 14 percent of Hispanic adults,
15 percent of American Indian/Alaska Native adults, 16 percent of Pacific Islander adults, 19 percent of
Black adults, 32 percent of adults of Two or more races, and 33 percent of White adults had earned at
least a bachelor’s degree. (Indicator 25).
• In 2013, among adults ages 25 to 64 who had not completed high school, lower percentages of Hispanic
and Asian adults were unemployed (both 9 percent) than of White (14 percent), Black (25 percent), and
American Indian/Alaska Native (23 percent) adults. (Indicator 26).
• Among adults ages 25 to 64 with a bachelor’s or higher degree, a lower percentage of White adults (3 percent) were unemployed in 2013 than of Asian (4 percent), Hispanic and American Indian/Alaska
Native (both 5 percent), and Black (6 percent) adults. (Indicator 26).
• Among young adults ages 20 to 24, higher percentages of Black and American Indian/Alaska Native young adults (29 and 38 percent, respectively) were neither enrolled in school nor working in 2014 than of White (16 percent), Hispanic (21 percent), and Asian (13 percent) young adults, as well as young adults of Two or more races (15 percent). (Indicator 27).
• Among full-time workers ages 25–34 who did not complete high school, median annual earnings of
White workers ($30,000) were higher than median annual earnings of their Black ($20,500) and
Hispanic peers ($22,800) in 2013. (Indicator 28).
• In 2013, among those with a bachelor’s or higher degree, median annual earnings of Asian full-time
workers ages 25–34 ($59,900) were higher than median annual earnings of their White ($50,000), Black ($44,600), and Hispanic peers ($45,800). (Indicator 28).

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